功能对等理论在美剧字幕翻译中的运用The Application of Functional Equivalence theory in Subtitle Translation



2019.05 赤子 功能对等理论在美剧字幕翻译中的运用 The Application of Functional Equivalence theory in Subtitle Translation 汪 晖 (浙江树人大学,浙江 杭州 310000) 1 Brief Introduction of Theory The first academic article on functional equivalence to deal with translate in western is that Nida. In China,a Chinese Buddhist Xuan Zang,who puts forward "the translation must be truthful and understandable to the public".(Tan Zaixi,1984:79). He lays stress on the equivalence response of the ordinary people. And his concept of "be truthful" simply means "faithful" or "equivalent",and "understandable to the public" is similar to the equivalence theory in the West. In another word,that is be simple and brief. In Yuan Qi's paper,he summarized that audiovisual translation owes some research nevertheless they do not prove affluent and become a part of complete system in subtitle translation. At present, the interaction with foreign countries become more frequently. Based on the feature as central with dialogues,life-like of language and colloquial. He analyze the relation between audiovisual translation and cultural,culture and recipient. Functional equivalence was put forward by Eugene Nida in 1964. Nida is an American linguist and translation theorist who was born in Oklahoma city,Oklahoma. He also is one of the founders of the modern discipline of Translation Studies. Functional equivalence is the core of his translation theory. According to Nida's theory, translation means reproducing the source languages and turn it into closest and natural target language first in meaning equivalence and then in terms of style instead of direct translation. In Nida's theory,they focus on different aspects,and it can be divided into three stages. (1)1959-1964,Dynamic Equivalence and Formal Equivalence Dynamic equivalence is centered with audience and demonstrates in a natural way,Nida insisted that there must be sustainable relationship between target language and source language. About formal equivalence which is laying stress on discoursing analysis and accuracy of translation. But this theory was in distortion in the war time (2)1969-1984,Dynamic Equivalence and Formal Equivalence At that time numerous scholarly articles have been published but lack ethical literary criticism. (3)1984- now,Dynamic Equivalence and Formal Equivalence Although Nida's theory had been questioned and challenged since 1980s,it still owes its research value and be picked up by many scholars. At the beginning,this theory was applied in translating Bible and made a great success. Gradually,some scholars insist it can be practiced in many other fields. What's more,there are four aspects of functional equivalence theory which includes lexical equivalence,sentence equivalence,passage equivalence and stylistic equivalence. In this thesis,author makes a research in lingual level. The history of interpretation in China have been developed but still have plenty of problems in their depth,lack of academic research and more quoted data. In recent decades,Chinese interpretations have been developed swiftly. And compared with some developed countries. China's translation level still have a long distance. 2 Functional Equivalence and Subtitle Translation Without audio visual translation,audience may not understand plot clearly. Without accurate subtitle translation,we may be misled by it and be confused. Under the instruction of Nida's functional equivalence,translators have more approaches to subtitle translation of overseas TV series. 2.1 Subtitle Translation of American TV Shows Due to the specific characteristics of audio-visual,limited by the time and definite screen,translators are bound to transfer tough languages into some words that are easy to understand. If obscure words were chosen in subtitle translation,audience may have lost their interests and bring losses. As for flash of some lines and pictures in a few seconds,audience do not have enough time to enjoy one more times. Once audience lose the first impression,they do not care much about latter plot. So the translation of subtitle need to be immediate and in time. The fusion of subtitle and actor's body languages and verbal words is one of the significant point in the plays. Translator can not isolate one of them but combine them with actor's mood and what they eager to convey. At present,countless fan-sub groups pop up and large number of American TV plays flood in China especially some hot TV series. Audience can enjoy the fantastic plot,in the meanwhile,digest the brilliant lines full of western culture. Fan-sub groups will stay up late to work for the latest episodes as swift as they can. There is no doubt that there might be some tiny mistakes due to their unequal level dealing with English. Here are some noted fan-sub groups in both domestic and abroad,FIX fan-sub groups,Tian Tian fan-sub groups and Ren Ren fan-sub groups. 2.2 Reasons of Analyzing Subtitle Translation from (转下页) 摘 要:在文化交流传播中,影视翻译占领一席之地,恰当的字幕翻译能吸引观众,更好地了解西方文化。当前美剧盛行,探究美剧字 幕翻译是一个极具现实价值的问题。本文浅谈了功能对等理论在美剧字幕翻译中的运用。 关键词:功能对等理论;美剧字幕翻译;运用 作者简介:汪晖(1981-),女,汉族,淳安,教师,讲师,硕士研究生,英语教育。 ·69· 万方数据 赤子 2019.05 Functional Equivalence As we all know,audio visual translation,as a branch of literal translation,have obeyed the rules of literal interpretation. While subtitle translation,limited by the time and place,and at the same time TV shows flashed in a second without enough time to consider the concrete plot and its implied meaning. Therefore,subtitle translation in target language of TV shows need to be simple and integrative which require translators exchange tough words into universal words from the perspective of scientific theories. A good translation need to convey basic meaning and dynamic of source language. A subtitle translation must be processed as native speaker and be read as contemporary audience. Nida's theory can be accomplished in translation practice,not only defining in the literal meaning but emphasizing the reactions of audience. And the goal of Nida's theory is suitable for the subtitle translation's aim to entertain audience in a natural way. And by the Theory and Practice of Translation,Nida indicates the essence of equivalence,“dynamic equivalence is therefore to be defined in terms of the degree to which the receptor of the message in the receptor language responds to it in substantially the same manner as the receptor in the source language”.(Eugene Nida & Charles Taber,1982:24). 3 Conclusion Hence,it is scientific and reasonable to guide subtitle translation of American TV series by functional equivalence. In addition, audience like enjoying different types of shows when theory can reappear deep meaning and its reflection in maximal way. Under the functional equivalence,translators have diversified techniques and methods like clarification in accordance with various types of translation to achieve functional equivalence. These practice in some ways foster the opinions and development of subtitle translation with Nida's theory. In the future study,more and more scientific and advanced theories will be applied in subtitle translation. References [1]Nida Eugene Albert &Charles R. Taber. The Theory and Practice of Translation[M].Shanghai:Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,2004. [2]Nida,Eugene. Toward a Science of Translating With Special Reference to Principles and Procedures Involved in Bible Translating [M]. Leiden:Brill,1964. [3]Nida Eugene Albert. Language Culture and Translating [M]. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,2004. 巧用单词竞赛促高三英语单词复习 张俊强 (深圳市第二高级中学,广东 深圳 518000) 2016 年广东省高考采用全国卷以来,英语(笔试)高考的变化 大,高考题型对词汇的考察由以前的 2400 上升到 3500。可见,要在 新高考题型中取胜,单词量的掌握情况至关重要。如何进行有效的 单词记忆成为英语高考复习的重中之重。 受河南卫视一档时新热门的电视竞赛节目《汉字英雄》的启发, 笔者想:汉字可以用如此巧妙有趣的方式来促进记忆,英语单词的 记忆不也可以这样做吗?竞赛的方式既能拉动全体同学对单词记忆 的参与,又能给单调沉闷的高三学习生活增添乐趣,何乐而不为? Action speaks louder than words。在笔者的牵头下,经过高三英 语备课组同事的热烈讨论和周密规划,制定出如下 2015 届高三英 语听写大赛比赛章程: 第一轮:笔试 时间:11 月 18 号下午第二节课(英语周测时间) 地点:各班教室 每班根据笔试成绩和平时表现,选出 5 名选手进入班际 PK 赛。 第二轮:班际 PK 赛 时间:11 月 26 号(周二)下午 3,4 节 地点:2 楼会议室;3 楼会议室;高三 12 班教室;学生会办公室 比赛需要道具:白板一块,黑蓝色水笔若干(4 支以上) 全年级各班以抽签形式分为四个小组,以听写形式在四个场地 同时进行班际 PK 赛,每组优胜选手进入最后总决赛。 第三轮:总决赛 时间:11 月 29 号晚上(体育节足球之夜时间) 地点:一楼北阶梯室 比赛需要道具:白板两块,黑蓝色水笔若干(4 支以上) 进入决赛的四个班级轮流比赛,决出最后总决赛。获胜队伍颁 发奖状。 接下来,参考《汉字英雄》的比赛程序,结合班级实际情况,制定 出如下比赛规则、程序和奖励办法: Rules and Procedures of the English Word Dictation Competition (单词听写大赛规则和程序) Rules(规则): (1)The whole class is divided into 5 groups,each member getting a number;(全班同学分成五组,每位组员有一个 (转下页) (接上页) 摘 要:要在新高考题型中取胜,单词量的掌握情况至关重要。如何进行有效的单词记忆成为英语高考复习的重中之重。谈谈如何巧 用单词竞赛促高三英语单词复习。 关键词:英语;单词竞赛;复习 ·70·

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在文化交流传播中,影视翻译占领一席之地,恰当的字幕翻译能吸引观众,更好地了解西方文化.当前美剧盛行,探究美剧字幕翻译是一个极具现实价值的问题.本文浅谈了功能对等理论在美剧字幕翻译中的运用.… [了解更多]

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